Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a unitary sovereign state in Central Europe.
The Polish state was first founded in 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, forming the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth was ultimately dissolved and partitioned to Austria, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Russian Empire at the end of the 18th century.
Throughout the 19th century, the Polish nation was politically and culturally repressed by the partitioners which led to the Poles rebelling several times against the occupying Russian, Prussian and Austrian governments. It was not until the aftermath of World War I that Poland regained its independence and fighting off Communist Ukraine and Russia during the Polish–Soviet War.
In 1939, Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany and formally initiated the outbreak of World War II in Europe. This was later follow by the Soviet Union invading the eastern part of Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. After the war, Poland suffered the loss of over six million citizens and half of them were Polish Jews who perished in the Holocaust. Poland soon became a communist satellite state under the Soviet Union and remained that way until the nation reestablished itself as a democratic republic in 1989.
Points of Interest
- Janos Prohaska
- Stanislaus Drozdowski
- Jerzy Reganiewicz
- Baron Povalsky
- Seweryn Kania
- Rachel Berkowitz
- Thomas Oscar Morrow