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Yugoslavia was formed out of South Slavic lands formerly controlled by the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the aftermath of World War I, initially constituted as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. In the period before World War II, Yugoslavia was threatened by the territorial ambitions o

Yugoslavia was a country in Southeastern and Central Europe for most of the 20th century. In mid-1991 and the years after, influenced by economic and political turmoil and nationalism, Yugoslavia was dissolved and split up into smaller countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia.

History

Yugoslavia was formed out of South Slavic lands formerly controlled by the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the aftermath of World War I, initially constituted as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. In the period before World War II, Yugoslavia was threatened by the territorial ambitions of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, resulting in the government's accession to the Tripartite Pact in a vain attempt to guarantee territorial sovereignty against an Axis invasion. A military coup ousted this government and canceled its obligation to uphold the Tripartite Pact, provoking Germany and Italy to occupy Yugoslavia in retaliation. A Yugoslav government-in-exile was then formed by King Peter II and an ideologically diverse cabinet of ministers for the duration of the war, headquartered in London. However, the influence of Communist partisans in the anti-fascist resistance led to Yugoslavia's post-war transition from a constitutional monarchy to a socialist federal republic led by Josip Broz Tito. Key strategic and geopolitical differences between the Yugoslav government and the Soviet-directed Eastern Bloc led to unsuccessful assassination attempts on Tito's life by Joseph Stalin and the KGB and Tito's cooperation with Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru, President of Egypt Abdel Nasser, President of Ghana Kwame Nkrumah, and President of Indonesia Sukarno in the formation of the Non-Aligned Movement, which professed non-affinity with both Western and Eastern Blocs of the Cold War. By the late 1980s, the wave of collapsing Communist governments in Eastern Europe resulted in Yugoslavia's transition to a more liberal, democratic, and capitalist society, but by the early 1990s, ethnic tensions were driven to a head by nationalistic organizations, including Croatian, Slovene, Bosnian, Macedonian, and Kosovar national independence movements as well as Serbian ultranationalists who opposed them. This resulted in the breakup of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia into smaller nation-states, accompanied by a period of ethnic and political violence which lasted through the rest of the 1990s. The President of Serbia Slobodan Milosevic was eventually taken before an international criminal court at The Hague for his role in facilitating and encouraging crimes against humanity committed by Serbian ultranationalist militias, and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro was dissolved shortly afterwards, bringing an end to the last remnants of a united Yugoslavia.

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